06/10/1865, the opera "Tristan und Isolde" by Richard Wagner premiered in Munich, Germany.
08/23/1866, Treaty of Prague ends Austro-Prussian war.
07/19/1870, France declared war on Prussia heralding the start of the Franco-Prussian war.
09/02/1870, Napoleon III surrenders to Prussian armies.
01/18/1871, Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia was proclaimed the first emperor of Germany.
01/28/1871, France surrendered in the Franco-Prussian War.
05/31/1878, German battleship Grosser Kurfurst sinks, 284 killed.
03/24/1882, German scientist Robert Koch announced in Berlin that he had discovered the bacillus responsible for tuberculosis.
05/15/1883, Italy signs military treaty with Austria-Hungary & Germany.
08/29/1885, Gottlieb Daimler receives German patent for a motorcycle.
07/03/1886, Karl Benz drove the first automobile in the world in Mannheim, Germany, reaching a top speed of 10 mph; a traffic cop stopped him and cited him with a speeding ticket. (RIMSHOT).
10/30/1886, Great-Britain/Germany divide boundaries in East-Africa.
02/20/1887, Germany, Austria-Hungary & France end Triple Alliance.
03/15/1889, 6 US & German warships fight in harbor at Apia Samoa, 200 die.
04/20/1889, Adolf Schickelgruber (Hitler) was born in Braunau-am-Inn, Austria.
05/01/1889, Bayer introduces aspirin in powder form (Germany).
05/20/1892, the Triple Alliance was formed: Germany, Italy, & Austria.
12/23/1893, the opera "Haensel und Gretel," with music by Engelbert Humperdinck and libretto by his sister, Adelheid Wette, was first performed publicly, in Weimar, Germany.
06/26/1894, the first U.S. patent for a gasoline-driven automobile is issued to Karl Benz of Germany.
01/05/1896, an Austrian newspaper (Wiener Presse) published the first public account of a discovery by German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen -- a form of radiation that became known as X-rays.
11/27/1896, the premiere performance of "Also Sprach Zarathustra" (Thus Spake Zoroaster) took place in Frankfurt, Germany, conducted by composer Richard Strauss. It became an 'opener' for many live shows after use in the movie "2001:A Space Odyssey".
05/20/1899, Jacob German of New York City became the first driver ever arrested for speeding. Mr. German was whipping his taxicab all over Lexington Avenue and being a pain in the neck by going over the posted 12 mile-per-hour speed limit!
12/02/1899, US & Germany agree to divide Samoa between them.
1242 - German knights invaded Russia and threatened capital Novgorod.
1704 - Charles I of Sweden invaded Russia.
1812 - Napoleon invaded Russia.
03/28/1854, during the Crimean War, Britain and France declared war on Russia.
10/25/1854, at 11 a.m., the "Charge of the Light Brigade" took place during the Crimean War as an English brigade of 600 men charged the Russian army against hopeless odds and suffered heavy losses.
02/15/1857, The father of Russian classical music died, but not in Russia. Glinka was the first Russian composer to make a serious effort to put the indigenous sounds of Russian folk music into classical compositions, and for this he was honored.
02/19/1861, Russian Tsar Alexander II abolishes serfdom (3/3 NS).
02/27/1861, in Warsaw, Russian troops fired on a crowd protesting Russian rule over Poland; five marchers were killed.
08/23/1866, Treaty of Prague ends Austro-Prussian war.
10/18/1867, the United States took formal possession of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million.
07/13/1878, the Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78.
12/21/1879, Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili (Stalin) was born in Gori, Georgia.
10/27/1886, the musical fantasy "A Night on Bald Mountain," written by Modest Mussorgsky in 1867,and revised after his death by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, was performed in St. Petersburg, Russia.
09/01/1888, Joseph Djugashvili (Stalin) was enrolled in the local Orthodox parochial school in Gori.
10/08/1892, Sergei Rachmaninoff first publicly performed his piano "Prelude in C-sharp- Minor" in Moscow where, according to the Old Style calendar still in effect in Russia at the time, the date was September 26.
12/17/1892, the dress rehearsal for "The Nutcracker Suite" by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky was staged in St. Petersburg, Russia, in the presence of Czar Alexander III, who, the composer later recalled, was "full of compliments." (However, the ballet was poorly received when it officially premiered the following night.).
12/18/1892, "The Nutcracker Suite", Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet, premiered in St. Petersburg, Russia; Dec 17 U.S. time.
10/28/1893, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky conducted his first public performance of his Symphony Number Six in B minor, "Pathetique," in St. Petersburg, Russia, just nine days before his death.
06/10/1894, Joseph Djugashvili (Stalin) graduates from the Gori school with highest marks.
09/02/1894, Joseph Djugashvili (Stalin) won a free scholarship in 1894 to the Orthodox theological seminary in Tiflis.
10/20/1895, Joseph Djugashvili (Stalin) establishes contact with the underground groups of Russian revolutionary Marxists who had been exiled to Transcaucasia by the tsarist government. There he succumbed to the radicalism traditional among the students of the school and in his fourth year joined Mesame Dasi, a secret group espousing Georgian nationalism and socialism.
05/26/1896, Last Czar of Russia, Nicholas II, crowned.
1896-1898 In the Theological Seminary in Tiflis J. V. Stalin conducts Marxist circles of students, studies Capital, the Manifesto of the Communist Party, and other works of K. Marx and F. Engels, and becomes acquainted with the early works of V. I. Lenin.
01/12/1898, Stalin begins to conduct a workers' Marxist circle in the Central Railway Workshops in Tiflis.
08/01/1898, Stalin joins the Georgian Social-Democratic organization Messameh Dassy. J. V. Stalin, V. Z. Ketskhoveli and A. G. Tsulukidze form the core of the revolutionary Marxist minority in the Messameh Dassy.
05/29/1899, Stalin is expelled from the Tiflis Theological Seminary for propagating Marxism.
12/28/1899, Stalin starts work at the Tiflis Physical Observatory.
1898-1900, Under the leadership of J. V. Stalin, V. Z. Ketskhoveli and A. G. Tsulukidze, a central leading group is formed within the Tiflis organization of the RSDLP, which passes from propaganda in study circles to mass political agitation. The group organizes the printing of manifestoes and their distribution among the workers, forms underground Social-Democratic circles, and leads the strikes and political struggle of the Tiflis proletariat.
In 1900, Steamer "Rio de Janiero" sinks in San Francisco Bay.
In 1900, the coldest St. Patrick's Day ever in Cleveland is celebrated, 0 degrees.
In 1900, The U.S. Navy's first Submarine debut.
In 1900, Stalin addresses a workers' May Day meeting in the region of Salt Lake, on the outskirts of Tiflis.
In 1900, engineer John Luther "Casey" Jones of the Illinois Central Railroad was killed in a wreck near Vaughan, Mississippi, after staying at the controls in an effort to save the passengers.
In 1900, British troops under Lord Roberts occupy Johannesburg.
In 1900, U.S. troops arrive in Peking to help put down the Boxer Rebellion.
In 1900, Hoboken, N.J.: piers of North German Lloyd Steamship line burned; 326 dead.
In 1900, Stalin establishes contact with V. K. Kurnatovsky, a well-known supporter of Lenin's Iskra, who had arrived in Tiflis for Party work.
In 1900, 114 degrees F (46 degrees C), Basin, Wyoming (state record).
In 1900, Stalin leads a mass strike at the Central Railway Workshops in Tiflis.
In 1900, international forces - including 2,000 U.S. Marines - entered Beijing to put down th e Boxer Rebellion, which was aimed at purging China of foreigners.
In 1900, thru Sept. 15, hurricane in Galveston, Tex. and Texas Gulf Coast: more than 6,000 died in hur ricane and tidal wave.
In 1900, a hurricane strikes Galveston, Texas, killing between 6,000 and 7,200 people, mainly in a 20-foot-high tidal surge (the deadliest storm in U.S. history).
In 1900, 20.3 cm rainfall at Each Point, South Dakota (state record).
In 1900, 8.3 earthquake shakes Cape Yakataga, Alaska.
In 1900, a German engineer patents front-wheel drive for autos.
In 1900, militant prohibitionist Carry Nation carried out her first public smashing of a bar, at the Carey Hotel in Wichita, Kansas.
In 1901, Female Army Nurse Corps established as a permanent organization.
In 1901, the U.S. Army Dental Corps was established by Congress.
In 1901, Stalin's lodgings at the Tiflis Physical Observatory are searched by the police.
In 1901, Stalin leaves the Tiflis Physical Observatory and goes underground.
In 1901, Stalin leads the workers' May Day dem-onstration in the Soldatsky Market Place, in the center of Tiflis.
In 1901, Fire destroyed 1,700 buildings in Jacksonville, Florida.
In 1901, Butch Cassidy & Sundance Kid rob train of $40,000 at Wagner Montana.
In 1901, SS Islander hits iceberg near Alaska & sinks killing 70.
In 1901, No. 1 of the illegal newspaper Brdzola, the organ of the revolutionary wing of the Georgian Marxists published on the initiative of J. V. Stalin, appears in Baku. The article "From the Editors," outlining the program of the newspaper which appeared in that issue, was written by J. V. Stalin.
In 1901, Stalin is elected a member of the first Tiflis Committee of the RSDLP, which followed the Leninist-Iskra trend.
In 1901, The War Department auth orized creation of the Army War College to instruct commissioned officers. It was built in Leavenworth, Kan.
In 1901, The Tiflis Committee sends J. V. Stalin to Batum to form a Social-Democratic organization there.
In 1901, No. 2-3 of Brdzola appears, containing J. V. Stalin's article "The Russian Social-Democratic Party and Its Immediate Tasks."
In 1901, Stalin establishes contact with the advanced workers in Batum and organizes Social-Democratic circles at the Rothschild, Mantashev Sideridis, and other plants.
In 1901, Stalin organizes in the guise of a New Year's party a secret conference of representatives of Social-Democratic study circles. The conference elects a leading group, headed by J. V. Stalin, which acted virtually as the Batum Committee of the RSDLP of the Leninist-Iskra trend.
In 1902, Stalin organizes in Batum an underground printing plant, writes leaflets and organizes the printing and distribution of manifestoes.
January 31st-February 17th
In 1902, Stalin organizes a strike at the Mantashev plant which ends in the victory of the workers.
February 27th-beginning of March
In 1902, Stalin directs the activities of the strike committee during a strike at the Rothschild plant.
In 1902, Stalin leads a demonstration of strikers who demand the release of 32 of their arrested fellow strikers.
In 1902, Stalin organizes and leads a political demonstration of over 6,000 workers employed in the various plants in Batum who demand the release of 300 worker-demonstrators arrested by the police on March 8. Outside the prison where the arrested workers were confined, the demonstration was shot at by troops and 15 workers were killed and 54 were injured. About 500 demonstrators were arrested. That same night J. V. Stalin wrote a manifesto on the shooting down of the demonstrators.
In 1902, Stalin leads a workers' demonstration which he had organized in connection with the funeral of the victims of the shooting on March 9.
In 1902, 27.9 cm precipitation at McMinnville, Tennessee (state record).
In 1902, Stalin is arrested at a meeting of the leading Party group in Batum.
In 1902, Stalin is detained in the Batum jail. April 1902-April 19, 1903 While in Batum jail, J. V. Stalin establishes and maintains contact with the Batnm Social-Democratic organization, directs its activities, writes leaflets, and conducts political work among the prisoners.
In 1902, Stalin in the Batum jail and was exiled to Siberia in 1903.
In 1902, Martinique, West Indies: Mt. Pelee erupted and wiped out city of St. Pierre; 40,000 dead.
In 1902, Britain and South Africa signed a peace treaty ending the Boer Wa r. Britain annexes Transvaal.
In 1902, Santa Maria Guatemala hit by Earthquake; about 6,000 die.
In 1903, death of Hitler father Alois.
In 1903, the first Teddy Bear was introduced in America. It was made by Morris and Rose Michtom, Russian immigrants.
In 1903, -59 degrees F (-51 degrees C), Pokegama Dam, Minnesota (state record).
In 1903, The Caucasian Union of the RSDLP is formed at the First Congress of Caucasian Social-Democratic Labor Organizations. J. V. Stalin, then confined in Batum jail, is in his absence elected a member of the Caucasian Union Committee that was set up at the congress.
In 1903, Stalin is transferred from the Batum jail to the Kutais jail, where he establishes contact with the other political prisoners and conducts among them propaganda on behalf of the Leninist-Iskra ideas.
In 1903, 11" (28.4 cm) rainfall in 24 hrs (NYC).
In 1903, Stalin is retransferred to the Batnm jail, whence he is deported under escort to Eastern Siberia.
In 1903, Stalin arrives at the village of Novaya Uda, Balagansk Uyezd, Irkutsk Gubernia, his place of exile.
In 1903, While in Siberia, J. V. Stalin receives a letter from V. I. Lenin.
In 1903, a fire in the Iroquois Theater in Chicago killed 588 to 602 people; public outrage led to new theater safety codes across America.
In 1904, Stalin escapes from his place of exile.
In 1904, a fire began in Baltimore that raged for about 30 hours and destroyed more than 1,500 buildings.
In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War began as Japan besieged Port Arthur in Manchuria.
In 1904, Japan declares war on Russia.
In 1904, Stalin arrives in Tiflis and directs the work of the Caucasian Union Committee of the RSDLP. Stalin drafts the program document entitled "Credo," dealing with the disagreements within the Party and with the organizational tasks of the Party.
In 1904, Stalin arrives in Baku where, on the instructions of the Caucasian Union Committee, he dissolves the Menshevik committee and forms a new, Bolshevik committee.
In 1904, more than 1,000 people died when fire erupted aboard the steamboat General Slocum in New York City's East River.
June - August
In 1904, Stalin makes a tour of the most important districts of Transcaucasia and debates with Mensheviks, Federalists, Anarchists and others.
In Kutais, J. V. Stalin forms a Bolshevik Imeretia-Mingrelia Committee.
In 1904, Eden, Colo.: Train derailed on bridge during flash flood; 96 killed.
In 1904, Proletarians Brdzola, No. 7, publishes J. V. Stalin's article "The Social-Democratic View of the National Question."
In 1904, Mounted police were used for the first time in the City of New York. The boys in blue still have a horse division for use in Central Park and other areas not easily patrolled on foot.
In 1904, the first monument in memory of the soldi ers and sailors of the Spanish American War was erected in Monroeville, Ohio.
In 1904, In connection with the disagreements within the Party, J V. Stalin, while in Kutais, writes letters to the Georgian Bolsheviks abroad, expounding Lenin's views on the combination of socialism with the working-class movement.
In 1904, a new investigation method, fingerprinting, was first used by the St. Louis Pol ice Department.
In 1904, Stalin arrives in Baku and leads the campaign for the convocation of the Third Congress of the Party.
In 1904, The Army War College in Washington, D.C. enrolls the first class.
In 1904, Stalin leads the general strike of the Baku workers.
In 1905, Proletarians Brdzola, No. 8, publishes J. V. Stalin's article "The Proletarian Class and the Proletarian Party."
In 1905, in the Russo-Japanese War, the Russians surrendered to the Japanese after the battle of Port A rthur. The Russians were trapped by the Japanese who had sunk merchant ships at the harbor entrance. The Japanese lost 58,000 men.
In 1905, The manifesto is issued entitled "Workers of the Caucasus, It Is Time to Take Revenge!" written by J. V. Stalin in connection with the defeat tsarism had sustained in the Far East.
In 1905, thousands of demonstrating Russian workers were fired on by Imperial arm y troops in St. Petersburg on what became known as "Red Sunday" or "Bloody Sunday."
Beginning of February
In 1905, On the initiative of J. V. Stalin, the Caucasian Union Committee dissolves the Menshevik Tiflis Committee, which had announced its withdrawal from the Caucasian Union of the RSDLP, and forms a new, Bolshevik Tiflis Committee.
In 1905, In connection with the Tatar-Armenian massacre in Baku which had been provoked by the police, J. V. Stalin writes the leaflet entitled "Long Live International Fraternity!"
In 1905, -29 degrees F (-34 d egrees C) Pond, Arkansas (state record).
In 1905, -40 degrees F (-40 degrees C) Lebanon, Kansas (state record).
In 1905, -40 degrees F (-40 degrees C) Warsaw, Missouri (state record).
In 1905, In connection with the successful demonstration of many thousands of people held in Tiflis to protest against an attempt by the police to provoke massacres among the different nationalities in that city too, J. V. Stalin writes the leaflet entitled "To Citizens. Long Live the. Red Flag!"
In 1905, Stalin speaks at a big meeting in Batum in a debate with the Menshevik leaders N. Ramishvili, R. Arsenidze, and others.
In 1905, Stalin's pamphlet Briefly About the Disagreements in the Party is published.
In 1905, President Theodore Roosevelt offered to act as a mediator in the Russo-Japanese War.
Stalin delivers a speech at the funeral of A. G. Tsulukidze in which he outlines a program of struggle to be waged by the workers and peasants against the autocracy, and subjects the tactics of the Mensheviks to devastating criticism.
In 1905, 127 degrees F (53 degrees C), Parker Ariz (state record).
In 1905, Proletarians Brdzola, No. 10, publishes J. V. Stalin's article "Armed Insurrection and Our Tactics."
In 1905, In a letter to the Caucasian Union Committee, N. K. Krupskaya asks for copies of J. V. Stalin's pamphlet Briefly About the Disagreements in the Party and also for the regular delivery of Borba Proletariats.
In 1905, Stalin speaks before an audience of 2,000 in Chiaturi in debate with the Anarchists, Federalists and Socialist-Revolutionaries.
In 1905, 26.7 cm rainfall at Princeton, Indiana (state record).
In 1905, Proletarians Brdzola, No. 11, publishes J. V. Stalin's articles "The Provisional Revolutionary Government and Social-Democracy" and "A Reply to Social-Democrat."
In 1905, the Treaty of Portsmouth, ending the Russo-Japanese War, was signed in New Hampshire, President Theodore Roosevelt having mediated the settlement.
In 1905, Proletarians Brdzola, No. 12, publishes J. V. Stalin's articles "Reaction Is Growing" and "The Bourgeoisie Is Laying a Trap."
In 1905, Stalin addresses a workers' meeting in the Nadzaladevi district of Tiflis on the tsar's Manifesto of October 17.
In 1905, "October Manifesto" Russian Tsar Nicholas II grants civil liberties.
In 1905, In connection with the October all-Russian political strike, J. V. Stalin writes the leaflets "Citizens!" and "To All the Workers!"
In 1905, Russia Switches From Julian To Gregorian Calendar.
In 1905, No. 1 of Kavkazsky Rabochy Listok appears with a leading article by J. V. Stalin entitled "Tiflis, November 20, 1905."
End of November
In 1905, Stalin directs the proceedings of the Fourth Bolshevik Conference of the Caucasian Union of the RSDLP.
In 1905, 120 degrees F (49 degrees C), Rivadavia, Argentina (South American record).
In 1905, Stalin takes part in the proceedings of the First All-Russian Conference of Bolsheviks in Tammerfors as a delegate of the Caucasian Union of the RSDLP At this conference he became personally acquainted with V. I. Lenin.
Beginning of January
In 1906, Stalin's pamphlet Two Clashes is published.
In 1906, Strongest instrumental ly recorded earthquake, Colombia, 8.6 Richter.
In 1906, Stalin's article "The State Duma and the Tactics of Social-Democracy" appears in Gantiadi, No. 3.
In 1906, France: explosion in coal mine in Courrieres killed 1,060.
In 1906, Stalin's articles "The Agrarian Question" and "Concerning the Agrarian Question," appear in Nos. 5, 9, 10 and 14 of the newspaper Elva.
End of March
In 1906, Stalin is elected a delegate from the Tiflis organization to the Fourth ("Unity") Congress of the RSDLP
In 1906, Stalin takes part in the proceedings of the Fourth ("Unity") Congress of the RSDLP in Stockholm at which, in opposition to the Mensheviks, he substantiates and defends the Bolshevik tactics in the revolution.
In 1906, at 5:13 a.m. a devastating earthquake struck San Francisco, followed by raging fires. About 700 people died; 250,000 homeless, 7.9 to 8.3 on Richter Scale, it was "The Bi g One!".
In 1906, SF Earthquake ends killing 452.
In 1906, No. 1 of Akhali Tskhovreba, directed by J. V. Stalin, appears.
In 1906, a love triangle came to a violent end atop New York's Madison Square Garden as architect Stanford White, the building's designer, was shot to death by Harry Thaw, the jealous husband of Evelyn Nesbit.
June 21-July 9
In 1906, Stalin's series of articles Anarchism or Socialism? appear in Nos. 2, 4, 7 and 16 of the Bolshevik newspaper Akhali Tskhovreba.
In 1906, Stalin directs the work of organizing the first trade unions in Tiflis (printers, shop assistants, and others).
In 1906, Stalin's article "Marx and Engels on Insurrection" appears in Akhali Tskhovreba, No. 19.
In 1906, Stalin's article "International Counter-revolution" appears in Akhali Tskhovreba, No. 20.
In 1906, Stalin's pamphlet The Present Situation and the Unity Congress of the Workers' Party is published.
In 1906, -17] 8.6 earthquake destroys Valparaiso Chile, fire kills 20,000.
In 1906, Bridge in St Lawrence Canada caves in; 70 die.
In 1906, Stalin takes part in the proceedings of the Regional Congress of Caucasian Organizations of the RSDLP.
In 1906, Hong Kong: typhoon with tsunami kil led an estimated 10,000 persons.
In 1906, the first conference on wireless telegraphy adopts SOS as a warning signal.
In 1906, No. 1 of Akhali Droyeba, directed by J. V. Stalin, appears, containing his article "The Class Struggle."
In 1906, Akhali Droyeba, No. 4, publishes J. V. Stalin's article "'Factory Legislation' and the Proletarian Struggle."
In 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt became the first American to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, for helping mediate an end to the Russo-Japanese War.
In 1906, Akhali Droyeba, No. 5, resumes publication of J. V. Stalin's scries of articles Anarchism or Socialism?
December 18, 1906-April 10, 1907
Publication of J. V. Stalin's series of articles Anarchism or Socialism? is continued in the Bolshevik newspapers Akhali Droyeba, Chveni Tskhovreba and Dro.
In 1907, death of Hitler mother Klara.
In 1907, No. 1 of the newspaper Mnatobi (The Torch), directed by J. V. Stalin, appears.
No. 8 of the newspaper Akhali Droyeba (New Times) publishes the continuation of J. V. Stalin's work Anarchism or Socialism?
In 1907, Stalin writes the preface to the Georgian edition of K. Kautsky's pamphlet The Driving Forces and Prospects of the Russian Revolution.
In 1907, more than 300 people died when the steamer Larchmont collided with a schooner off New England's Block Island.
In 1907, No. 1 of the newspaper Chveni Tskhovreba (Our Life), directed by J. V. Stalin, appears, containing his article "The Election Campaign in St. Petersburg and the Mensheviks."
In 1907, Nos. 3, 5, 8 and 9 of Chveni Tskhovreba publish the continuation of J. V. Stalin's work Anarchism or Socialism?
In 1907, No. 1 of the newspaper Dro (Time), directed by J. V. Stalin, appears.
In 1907, No. 2 of Dro publishes J. V. Stalin's article "The Autocracy of the Cadets or the Sovereignty of the People?"
In 1907, No. 6 of Dro publishes J. V. Stalin's leading article "The Proletariat Is Fighting, the Bourgeoisie Is Concluding an Alliance With the Government."
In 1907, No. 10 of Dro publishes J. V. Stalin's article "Comrade G. Telia. In Memoriam."
March 28 and 30th
In 1907, Dro publishes the decisions of the worker Bolsheviks in Tiflis to elect J. V. Stalin as a delegate to the Fifth Congress of the RSDLP
April 4-6 and 10th
In 1907, Nos. 21-23 and 26 of Dro publish the continuation of J.V. Stalin's work Anarchism or Socialism?
In 1907, No. 25 of Dro publishes J. V. Stalin's loading article "The Advanced Proletariat and the Fifth Party Congress."
In 1907, No. 26 of Dro publishes J. V. Stalin's article "Muddle. . ."
In 1907, No. 29 of Dro publishes J. V. Stalin's article "Our Caucasian Clowns."
April 30-May 19th
In 1907, Stalin takes part in the proceedings of the Fifth ("London") Congress of the RSDLP as the delegate of the Tiflis organization.
In 1907, -27 degrees F (-33 de grees C), Sarmiento, Argentina (South American record).
In 1907, On returning from the Fifth ("London") Congress of the RSDLP, J. V. Stalin visits Baku and Tiflis.
In 1907, Lowest temp ever in 48 US states for June, 2 degrees F in Tamarack Calif.
First half of June
In 1907, On returning from the Fifth ("London") Congress of the RSDLP, J. V. Stalin visits Baku and Tiflis and delivers reports on the congress at meetings of the Social-Democratic organizations of Baku, Tiflis and a number of districts in Western Georgia. J. V. Stalin leads the struggle of the Bolsheviks against the Mensheviks, Socialist-Revolutionaries and others.
In 1907, No. 1 of the underground Bolshevik newspaper Bakinsky Proletary (The Baku Proletarian), edited by J. V. Stalin, appears, containing the leading article written by him: "The Dispersion of the Duma and the Tasks of the Proletariat," and also his article "The London Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Notes of a Delegate)."
In 1907, Stalin speaks at discussion meetings organized in the districts of Baku in which he exposes the policy of the Mensheviks and the Socialist-Revolutionaries.
Stalin directs the campaign to boycott the conference with the oil owners.
In 1907, No. 2 of Bakinsky Proletary publishes the continuation of J. V. Stalin's article "The London Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (Notes of a Delegate)."
End of July
In 1907, The Baku Bolsheviks, headed by J. V. Stalin, hold a Party conference of the oil districts, which declares in favour of organizing a general strike.
In 1907, an Aeronautical Division was added to the Army Signals Corps, and this forerunner of the U.S. Air Force bought its first airplane. The aircraft was built b y the Wright brothers.
In 1907, the forerunner of the U.S. Air Force was established by the army as an aeronautical division, the U.S. Signal Corps.
In 1907, Appearance of No. 1 of the newspaper Gudok - the legal Bolshevik organ of the Baku oil industry workers' union, formed on the initiative of J. V. Stalin.
In 1907, At a delegate meeting of five district Social-Democratic organizations and of the Moslem Social-Democratic group "Gummet,"J. V. Stalin is elected a member of the organizing commit-tee set up to convene a city Party conference.
In 1907, Stalin directs the campaign during the October Third State Duma elections.
The "Mandate" to the Social-Democratic deputies in the Third State Duma, written by J. V. Stalin, is adopted at a meeting of delegates of the workers' curia in Baku held on September 22.
In 1907, Stalin delivers a speech at the grave of Khanlar Safaraliyev. a working man Bolshevik who was killed by the hired agents of the capitalists.
No. 4 of Gudok publishes J. V. Stalin's article "Boycott the Conference!"
In 1907, At a Baku city conference of Bolsheviks, J. V. Stalin is elected a member of the Baku Committee of the RSDLP.
First half of November
In 1907, A meeting of the Baku Committee of the RSDLP, which J. V. Stalin attended, is held in the premises of the Sabunchi Hospital.
In 1907, The Baku Committee of the RSDLP, directed by J. V. Stalin, conducts a one-day strike to protest against the prosecution of the Social-Democratic group in the Second State Duma.
End of November
In 1907, Stalin arrives in Tiflis on Party business.
November 1907-March 1908
In 1907, Stalin directs the campaign for the participation of the Baku workers in a conference with the oil owners on the condition that the rights of the workers are guaranteed.
In 1907, 239 workers died in a coal mine explosion in Jacobs Creek, Pennsylvania.
In 1908, Hitler moved to Vienna to study art and architecture, but failed to be admitted to the Academy of Fine Arts, earned a meager living painting postcards.
In 1908, No. 14 of Gudok publishes J. V. Stalin's leading article "Before the Elections."
January - February
In 1908, The Baku Bolsheviks, directed by J. V. Stalin, organize a series of big strikes.
In 1908, No. 17 of Gudok publishes J. V. Stalin's leading article "More About a Conference With Guarantees."
In 1908, The Baku Committee of the RSDLP, directed by J. V. Stalin, organizes a "Self-Defense Staff" in connection with the growing frequency of assaults by Black Hundreds.
In 1908, No. 21 of Gudok publishes J. V. Stalin's article "What Do Our Recent Strikes Tell Us?"
In 1908, one of the the deadliest U.S. school fires claims 174 at Lakeview Elementary in the Collinwood area of Cleveland, Ohio.
In 1908, No. 22 of Gudok publishes J. V. Stalin's leading article "The Change in the Oil Owners' Tactics."
In 1908, No. 23 of Gudok publishes J.V. Stalin's leading article "We Must Prepare!"
In 1908, Stalin, under the alias Gaioz Nizharadze, is arrested and confined in the Bailov prison in Baku.
March 25-November 9th
In 1908, While in prison J. V. Stalin establishes and maintains contact with the Baku Bolshevik organization, directs the Baku Committee of the RSDLP and writes .articles for the Bakinsky Proletary and Gudok. He also conducts propaganda among the political prisoners, holds debates with the Socialist-Revolutionaries and Mensheviks and organizes the study of Marxist literature by the political prisoners.
In 1908, No. 25 of Gudok publishes J.V. Stalin 's leading article "Economic Terrorism and the Labor Movement."
April 21-May 18th
In 1908, Nos. 28, 30 and 32 of Gudok publish J.V. Stalin's article "The Oil Owners on Economic Terrorism."
In 1908, Fire makes 17,000 homeless in Chelsea Massachusetts.
In 1908, World's most intense shower (2.47" in 3 minutes) at Portobelo Panama.
In 1908, a dirigible explodes over S.F. Bay, 16 passengers fall, none die.
In 1908, Possibly the most powerful, natural explosion in recorded history occurred in Central Siberia. The spectacular explosion caused seismic shock, and a firestorm followed by blac k rain and an illumination that, it is said, could be seen for hundreds of miles.
In 1908, No. 5 of Bakinsky Proletary publishes J. V. Stalin's articles "Flunkey 'Socialists'" and "Hypocritical Zubatovites."
The same issue of the newspaper publishes as a supplement J. V. Stalin's article "The Conference and the Workers."
In 1908, Stalin is deported to the Vologda Gubernia for two years to remain under open police surveillance.
In 1908, Messina, Sicily: about 85,000 killed and city totally destroyed.
In 1909, Stalin arrives in Vologda under escort and is confined in the Vologda prison.
In 1909, Stalin's place of exile is decided: Solvychegodsk, Vologda Gubernia.
In 1909, the United States ended direct control over Cuba.
In 1909, On the way to his place of exile under escort J. V. Stalin falls sick with relapsing fever and is taken from the Vyatka prison to the Vyatka Gubernia Zemstvo Hospital.
In 1909, Stalin is transferred from the hospital to the Vyatka prison.
In 1909, Stalin arrives in Solvychegodsk.
In 1909, Stalin escapes from Solvychegodsk.
Beginning of July
In 1909, While on his way J. V. Stalin stays several days in St. Petersburg.
First half of July
In 1909, Stalin secretly arrives in Baku and directs the work of restoring and consolidating the Bolshevik organizations in Baku and Transcaucasia.
In 1909, After a year's suspension, Bakinsky Proletary resumes publication with No. 6, which contains J. V. Stalin's leading article "The Party Crisis and Our Tasks."
In 1909, Army Air Corps formed as Army takes first delivery from Wright Brothers.
In 1909, The Baku Committee of the RSDLP, directed by J. V. Stalin, adopts a resolution on the state of affairs on the editorial board of Proletary supporting "the stand taken by the majority of the editorial board represented by Comrade Lenin."
In 1909, No. 7 of Bakinsky Proletary publishes the conclusion of J. V. Stalin's article "The Party Crisis and Our Tasks," and also the article "The Forthcoming General Strike."
First half of September
In 1909, Stalin leaves Baku for Tiflis, where he organizes and directs the struggle of the Tiflis Bolshevik organization against the Menshevik Liquidators.
In 1909, thru Sept . 21, hurricane in Louisiana and Mississippi: 350 deaths.
End of September
In 1909, Stalin takes measures to re-establish the underground printing plant of the Baku Committee,
October 19-beginning of November
In 1909, Stalin arrives in Tiflis and makes preparations for the convocation of the Tiflis City Party Conference and for the publication of the Bolshevik newspaper Tiflissky Proletary.
In 1909, work begins on the naval base at Pearl Harbor. It is selected because "it is defensible against any potential threat from Japan." Sure.
In 1909, Stalin returns to Baku from Tiflis.
In 1909, 250 miners were killed in a fire and explosion at the St. Paul Mine at Cherry, Ill.
In 1909, US invades Nicaragua, later overthrows Pres Zelaya.
In 1909, Stalin writes "Letters From the Caucasus" for the Central Organ of the Party.
In 1909, The Baku Committee of the RSDLP issues a leaflet written by J. V. Stalin, "The December Strike and the December Agreement" (on the occasion of the fifth anniversary of the Baku strike of 1904).
Beginning with 1910
In 1910, Stalin is a representative of the Central Committee of the Party ("agent of the C.C.").
In 1910, No. 1 of the newspaper Tiflissky Proletary, founded with the direct participation of J.V. Stalin, appears.
In 1910, The Baku Committee of the RSDLP adopts a resolution drafted by J. V. Stalin urging the necessity of convening a general Party conference, of transferring the practical center for directing the activities of the Party to Russia and of publishing an all-Russian leading newspaper.
In 1910, 3 passenger trains buried at Steven's Pass in Cascade Range; 118 die. Worst snow slide in US history.
In 1910, Stalin is arrested under the alias Zakhar Grigoryan Melikyants.
Stalin's leaflet "August Bebel, Leader of the German Workers, " appears.
In 1910, Stalin is confined in the Bailov Prison in Baku.
In 1910, Canadian parliament accept creation of Royal Canadian Navy.
In 1910, Charles Stewart Rolls, aviator and co-founder of Rolls-Royce, became Britain's first aviation victim when he crashed his plane near Bournemouth.
In 1910, The first U.S. pilot to fire a gun from an airplane is J. E. Fickel of Sheepshead Bay, New Y ork.
In 1910, While in prison J. V. Stalin receives the order of the Viceroy of the Caucasus dated August 27 prohibiting him from residing in the Caucasus for five years.
In 1910, Stalin is taken under escort to Solvychegodsk.
In 1910, Stalin arrives in Solvychegodsk.
November 1910-June 1911
In 1910, Stalin establishes contact with V. I. Lenin. He organizes meetings of exiles at which papers are read and current political questions are discussed.
In 1910, revolution broke out in Mexico, led by Francisco I. Madero.
In 1910, Stalin writes a letter to the Central Committee of the Party ("A Letter to the Central Committee of the Party from Exile in Solvychegodsk").
In 1911, the Richard Strauss opera "Der Rosenkavalier" premiered in Dresden, Germany.
In 1911, Great fire in Constantinople/Istanbul Turkey.
In 1911, US helps to overthrow Miguel Dfvila/president of Honduras.
In 1911, the United States sent 20,000 troops to the Mexican border as a precaution in the wake of the Mexican Revolution.
In 1911, 146 immigrant workers were killed when a fire broke out at the Triangle Sh irtwaist Company in New York; the disaster stirred public outrage and spurred workplace safety reform.
In 1911, The police make repeated searches in J. V. Stalin's lodgings (at the house of M. P. Kuzakova) in Solvychegodsk.
In 1911, the first person to commit a crime and be convicted through the use of fingerprints turned out to be Caesar Cella. He had been "thumbed" in New York City.
In 1911, Revolution in Mexico overthrows President Jose Porfirio Diaz.
In 1911, At a conference of members of the Central Committee of the RSDLP, held in Paris, J. V. Stalin is appointed in his absence an alternate member of the Organizing Committee for convening the Party conference.
In 1911, Stalin in Solvychegodsk is kept under close arrest for three days for organizing a meeting of exiled Social-Democrats.
In 1911, Stalin is released from open police surveillance in view of the expiration of his period of exile. Being prohibited from residing in the Caucasus, in the capitals and industrial centres, he chooses Vologda as his place of residence as it is on the way to St. Petersburg.
In 1911, Stalin, furnished with a transit permit, leaves Solvychegodsk for Vologda.
In 1911, 105 degrees F (41 degrees C) at North Bridgton, Maine (state record).
In 1911, 46" of rain begins to fall in Baguio, Philippines.
In 1911, 46" of rain (begining 7/14) falls in Baguio, Philippines.
In 1911 Stalin arrives in Vologda.
In 1911, In Vologda J. V. Stalin is kept under secret police surveillance.
In 1911, Stalin writes a letter to the editorial board of Rabochaya Gazeta (Workers' Newspaper), directed by Lenin, informing it of his intention to work in St. Petersburg or in Moscow.
In 1911, Generals Henry Wilson/Auguste Dubail sign plan for British Expeditionary army in case of war with Germany.
In 1911, British premier Asquith holds secret m eeting about British strategy in case of war with Germany.
In 1911, 45.7 cm rainfall at St George, Georgia (state record).
In 1911, Stalin secretly leaves Vologda for St. Petersburg.
In 1911, Stalin arrives in St. Petersburg and registers with the passport of P. A. Chizhikov.
In 1911, Stalin meets the Bolsheviks S. Todria and S. Alliluyev and establishes contact with the St. Petersburg Party organization.
In 1911, Stalin is arrested and confined in the St. Petersburg House of Preliminary Detention.
In 1911, Italy declares war on Turkey.
In 1911, revolutionaries under Sun Yat-sen overthrew China's Manchu dynasty. Seventy years later, Aaron Spelling installed a Dynasty at ABC.
In 1911, the first wartime reconnaissance flight is made by the Ital ian Army Aviation Corps in Libya.
In 1911, the Italian Air Corps conduct history's first airborne bombing raid.
In 1911, Italy attacks Turkish North-Africa (Libya), takes Tipoli & Cyrenaica.
In 1911, Stalin is deported to Vologda for three years, to remain under open police surveillance.
In 1911, Stalin arrives in Vologda.
Between January 5(18) and 17(30)
In 1912, At the Sixth ("Prague'') General Party Conference, J. V. Stalin is in his absence elected member of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party.
The conference sets up a practical center known as the Russian Bureau of the Central Committee to direct revolutionary activities in Russia and places J. V. Stalin in charge of this center.
In 1912, US marines invade Honduras.
In 1912, -40 degrees F (-40 degrees C), Oakland, Maryland (state record).
In 1912, first US submarines with diesel engines commissioned, Groton, Ct.
Middle of February
In 1912, On the instructions of V.I Lenin, G. K. Ordjonikidze, a member of the Russian Bureau of the Central Committee, goes to see J. V. Stalin in Vologda to inform him of the decisions of the Prague Conference.
In 1912, Stalin escapes from exile in Vologda.
Beginning of March
In 1912, Stalin writes the leaflet "For the Party!" which is published in the name of the Central Committee of the RSDLP and is widely distributed in Russia.
In 1912, the Italians are the first to use dirigibles for military purposes (reconnaissance.).
First half of March
In 1912, Stalin visits Baku and Tiflis to organize the work of the Transcaucasian Bolshevik organizations in carrying out the decisions of the Prague Conference. He writes Circular Letter No. 1 of the Central Committee of the RSDLP to the Party organizations announcing the definite formation of the Central Committee.
In 1912, Stalin conducts a conference of the Party workers of the Bolshevik district organizations in Baku. The conference endorses the decisions of the Prague Conference.
In 1912, Stalin writes a report on the conference in Baku for the Sotsial-Demokrat.
In 1912, the Royal Flying Corps Of England was organized.
In 1912, Stalin leaves Baku for St. Petersburg.
Beginning of April
In 1912, On the way to St. Petersburg J. V. Stalin stops in Moscow and meets G. K. Ordjonikidze.
J. V. Stalin writes the leaflet "Long Live the First of May!"
J. V. Stalin sends to Tiflis a copy of the resolution adopted by a group of Moscow Party workers welcoming the decisions of the Prague Conference and the newly-formed Central Committee.
On behalf of the Central Committee of the RSDLP, J. V. Stalin writes to Clara Zetkin requesting her to transfer the Party funds held by her to the Central Committee for the purpose of conducting the Fourth State Duma election campaign.
In 1912, Steamers collide in the Nile, drowning 200.In 1945, Nazi occupiers executed, Nazi general Christiansen flees Netherlands.
In 1912, the luxury liner R.M.S. Titanic set sail from Southhampton, England, on its ill-fated maiden voyage. On the night of April 14, the ship struck an iceberg in t he North Atlantic and sank almost three hours later. About 1,500 people perished in the disaster. In 1997, the movie "Titantic" was released based on this event and became the most successful movie ever (as of my prediction as I was editing this 2-21-98 )
In 1912, Stalin secretly arrives in St. Petersburg.
In 1912, Stalin edits the Bolshevik workers' newspaper Zvezda in which the following articles of his are published: "A New Period" (leading article), "Life Triumphs!", "They Are Working Well....", "The Ice Has Broken!..." (leading article), "'How They Are Preparing for the Elections," "Deductions" (leading article), and others.
Middle of April
In 1912, Stalin makes arrangements with the members of the Social-Democratic group in the Third. State Duma N. G. Poletayev and I. P. Pokrovsky, as well as with the Bolshevik journalists M. S. Olminsky and N. N. Baturin, for the publication of the newspaper Pravda and for the drafting of its programme, and together with them makes up the first number of that newspaper.
In 1912, the supposedly unsinkable British liner, the largest passenger liner afloat, the RMS Titanic, collided with an iceberg in the North Atlantic on its maiden voyage and began sinking. Many onboard refused to believe the ship was going down. Rescue ships saved 706 survivors, but 1,517 sunk with the ship at 2:20 the following morning. (****)
In 1912, at 2:27 a.m., the British luxury liner RMS Titanic, the largest passenger lin er afloat, sank in the North Atlantic off Newfoundland, less than three hours after striking an iceberg. About 1,500 of the more than 2,200 people aboard died in the disaster.
In 1912, No. 1 of the workers' daily newspaper Pravda appears containing J.V. Stalin 's article "Our Aims."
Stalin is arrested and confined in the preliminary detention prison in St. Petersburg.
In 1912, 10 8 degrees F (42 degrees C), Tuguegarao, Philippines (Oceania record).
In 1912, US army tests first machine gun mounted on a plane.
In 1912, Stalin is deported under escort from St. Petersburg to the Narym territory, to be kept under open police surveillance for three years.
In 1912, Naval torpedo launched from an airplane patented by B.A. Fiske.
In 1912, Stalin, accompanied by a prison warder, leaves Tomsk on the steamer Kolpashevets for his place of exile in Narym.
In 1912, 2,500 US marines invade Nicaragua; US remains until 1925.
In 1912, Stalin escapes from exile in Narym.
In 1912, Stalin arrives in St. Petersburg
In 1912, Stalin directs the Fourth State Duma election campaign and organizes the struggle against the Menshevik Liquidators.
J. V. Stalin edits Pravda.
In 1912, A meeting of the Executive Commission of the St. Petersburg Committee is held under J. V. Stalin's direction at which a decision is adopted to call a one-day strike in protest against the annulment of the election of voters' delegates at the biggest plants in St. Petersburg (Putilov's and others).
Beginning of October
In 1912, Stalin conducts a secret Party conference at which the tactics to be adopted in the struggle against the Liquidators is discussed and the workers' candidate for the Fourth State Duma is nominated.
Stalin writes "Mandate of the St. Petersburg Workers to Their Labor Deputy."
Middle of October
In 1912, Stalin sends "Mandate of the St. Petersburg Workers" to V. I. Lenin on the editorial board of Sotsial-Demokrat, in which paper it was published in the issue No. 28-29 of November 5(18), 1912.
In 1912, The "Mandate" written by J. V. Stalin is adopted at the assembly of voters' delegates of the workers' curia in the St. Petersburg Gubernia.
In 1912, Beginning of the first Balkan War.
In 1912, No. 147 of Pravda publishes the leading article by J. V. Stalin "The Will of the Voters' Delegates."
October 21 (November 3)
In 1912, On the instructions of V. I. Lenin, N. K. Krupskaya writes to Pravda and the members of the Social-Democratic group in. the Duma stating that it is extremely important for J. V. Stalin to visit Krakow.
In 1912, No. 151 of Pravda publishes J. V. Stalin's article "The Results of the Elections in the Workers' Curia of St. Petersburg."
In 1912, No. 152 of Pravda publishes J. V. Stalin's article "Today Is Election Day."
End of October
In 1912, Stalin visits Moscow for a short period and establishes contact with the newly-elected working men Bolshevik deputies of the Fourth State Duma.
In 1912, Stalin returns to St. Petersburg from Moscow.
In 1912, Stalin secretly arrives in Krakow to visit V. I. Lenin.
In 1912, V. I. Lenin sends the "Mandate" he had received from J. V. Stalin to Pravda with instructions to publish it "in a prominent place in large type."
First half of November
In 1912, Stalin takes part in a meeting of the members of the Central Committee of the RSDLP in Krakow.
End of November-beginning of December
In 1912, Returning to St. Petersburg from Krakow, J. V. Stalin directs the activities of the Social Democratic group in the Fourth State Duma.
November 23 (December 6)th
In 1912, V. I. Lenin writes to J. V. Stalin on preparations for th¥ anniversary of January 9 and on the need for leaflets to be published in connection with it.
In 1912, Socialist International rejects that world war is coming.
First half of December
In 1912, On the instructions of V. I. Lenin, N. K. Krupskaya writes to J. V. Stalin urging him to come to Krakow for a meeting of the members of the Central Committee of the RSDLP and the six Bolshevik deputies in the Fourth Duma.
End of December
In 1912, Stalin secretly leaves for Krakow.
December 28, 1912 (January 10, 1913) - January 1(14), 1913
In 1912, Stalin takes part in the "February" conference of the Central Committee of the RSDLP with Party workers and the Bolshevik members of the Social-Democratic group in the Duma, held under the direction of V. I. Lenin. At this conference V. I. Lenin and J. V. Stalin propose measures for improving the work of the editorial board of Pravda.
End of December 1912 - beginning of January 1913
In 1912, The leaflet written by J. V. Stalin "To All the. Working Men and Working Women of Russia!" 1913 is issued.