In 1941, Brit begin East Africa campaign against Italians.
In 1941, 21 U boats sunk this month (127,000 ton).
In 1941, The United Service Organization (USO) is formed to serve the social, educational, welfare and religious needs of members of the armed forces.
In 1941, British troops conquer Bengazi, Libya.
In 1941, Trapped Italian army surrenders to British at Bedafomm, Libya.
In 1941, Nazi collaborators destroy pro-Jewish cafe Alcazar Amsterdam (Alcazar refused to hang "No Entry for Jews" signs in front of cafe).
In 1941, British troops conquer El Agheila.
In 1941, Gen. Erwin Rommel arrives in Tripoli to take over North African campaign for Axis.
In 1941, Nazis order Polish Jews barred from using public transportation.
In 1941, US Senate accepts Omar Bradley's demotion to brig-general.
In 1941, Arthur T "Bomber" Harris becomes British Air Marshal.
In 1941, German assault on El Agheila Libya.
In 1941, 39 U Boats (197,000 ton) sunk this month.
In 1941, Italians finally check Greek counteroffensive.
In 1941, British forces reach Greek mainland.
In 1941, 50,000 British soldiers lands in Greece.
In 1941, British troops invade Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
In 1941, third largest snowfall in NYC history (18.1").
In 1941, France's Sports Dictator, Jean Borotra, ruled that French Professional Athletes must also work another job because sports must be considered a means of acquiring health, and not a well-paid job. France was occupied by Nazi Germany at the time.
In 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law the Lend-Lease Bill, providing war supplies to countries fighting the Axis. It also helped Britain survive attacks by Germany.
In 1941, Blizzard hits North Dakota & Minnesota killing 60.
In 1941, British land at Berbera, British Somaliland.
In 1941, Axis forces launch offensive in North Africa (Tobruk is invested by April 11).
In 1941, British troops conquer British Somalia.
In 1941, German attack near El Agheila Libya.
In 1941, Britain leases defense bases in Trinidad to US for 99 years.
In 1941, Hitler signs Directive 27 (assault on Yugoslavia).
In 1941, German counter offensive in North-Africa.
In 1941, Churchill warns Stalin of German invasion.
In 1941, Axis forces invade Yugoslavia and Greece; British occupy Addis Ababa.
In 1941, British generals O'Connor & Neame captured in North Africa.
In 1941, German troops conquer Libyan county Cyrenaica.
In 1941, Russian-Japan no-attack treaty goes into effect.
In 1941, British troop land in Iraq/Yugoslavia; Yugoslavia surren dered to Germany in World War II.
= Yugoslav Army capitulates.
In 1941, Greece Army surrenders to German Nazis; RAF brings Greek king George II to Egypt.
In 1941, at an "America First" rally in New York City, aviator Charles Lindber gh said, "It is obvious that England is losing the war." Lindbergh opposed U.S. entry into World War II.
In 1941, British army begins evacuation of Greece.
In 1941, Organized resistance ends on Greek mainland.
In 1941, British attack insurgents in Iraq (campaign ends May 31 with occupation of Baghdad).
In 1941, Stalin delivered a speech at the Soviet War Academy where he announced his determination to go to war: "A modern army must be an offensive army."
In 1941, dictator Josef Stalin assumed the Soviet premiership, replacing Vyacheslav M. Molotov.
In 1941, England's House of Commons and Holborn Theater destroyed in a blitz.
In 1941, German Luftwaffe strikes London with fire bombs.
In 1941, Adolf Hitler's deputy, Rudolf Hess, parachuted into Scotland on what he claime d was a peace mission. (Hess ended up serving a life sentence at Spandau prison until 1987, when he apparently committed suicide).
In 1941, 1st Messerschmidt 109F shot down above England.
In 1941, Italian army under Aosta surrenders to Britain at Amba Alagi Ethiopia.
In 1941, Last great German air attack on Great Britain (Birmingham).
In 1941, Italian army under general Aosta surrenders to Britain in Ethiopia.
In 1941, Germans begin airborne attack on Crete.
In 1941, a German U-boat sank the American freighter S.S. "Robin Moore" in the South Atlantic.
In 1941, President Roosevelt proclaimed "an unlimited state of national emergency," seven months before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
In 1941, British troops attack Baghdad.
In 1941, the German battleship "Bismarck" sank the British dreadnought "Hood" in the North Atlantic.
In 1941, Ark Royal airplane sights German battleship Bismarck.
In 1941, Allied troops begin evacuating Kreta.
In 1941, amid rising world tensions, President Roosevelt proclaimed an "unlimited national emergency."
In 1941, the German battleship Bismarck sank off the coast of France with the loss of 2,300 lives.
In 1941, English Army enters Baghdad, chasing pro-German coup government.
In 1941, 41 U boats sunk this month (325,000 ton).
In 1941, British troops vacate Kreta.
In 1941, Germans complete conquest of Crete.
In 1941, -June 1) 32.0 cm rain falls on Burlington Kansas (state record).
In 1941, British troops occupy Bagdad Iraq.
In 1941, the first navy vessel constructed as mine layer Terror was launched.
In 1941, British attack Vichy French forces in Syria, defeating them in six days.
In 1941, English & French troop overthrow pro-German Syria.
In 1941, Turkey signs peace treaty with nazi-Germany.
In 1941, German U-203 fails on torpedo attack on US battleship Texas.
In 1941, Hitler ordered German subs to not attack U.S. warships.
In 1941, Germany, Italy & Romania declared war on Soviet Union during WW II. Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
= Germany invaded Russia following Hitler's Barbarossa Plan, a preemptive strike with 3 million soldiers at 3:15 am Einsatzgruppen (S)S and Sicherheitsdienstes (SD), before Stalin was ready to start his offensive war.
= Operation BARBAROSSA begins. Over 3 million German soldiers and 3300 tanks cross the Russian border. The Wehrmarcht (German Army) is organized into three Army Groups . Facing them is the world's largest army comprised of 230 divisions of 14,000 men each, with 20,000 tanks (many obsolete.) The Russian Army is organized into four Military Districts.
In 1941, The Luftwaffe (German Air Force) destroys over 2,000 Red Air Force aircraft. Many are caught on the ground in the first hours of the assault. The numerically strongest air force in the world is wiped out in 48 hours. The Commander of Russian Aviation, General Rychagov, is given the death sentence for "treasonable activity" (i.e. defeat.)
In 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt extended Lend-Lease aid to Stalin.
In 1941, Finland declares war on Soviet Union.
In 1941, Germans invade Dubno Poland, giving permission to Ukrainians to do whatever they want to 12,000 Jews living there.
In 1941, The BBC began using the first four notes of Beethoven's Fifth as a morale-boosting motif for listeners in the parts of Europe that had been overrun by the Nazis. In Morse Code, "dit-dit-dit dahhh" stands for the letter "V " and "V" stood for "Victory."
In 1941, The Wehrmarcht captures Minsk, having advanced over 200 miles in a week. 15 Russian divisions are surrounded, and later surrender.
In 1941, 61 U-boats (310,000 ton) sunk this month.
In 1941, Stalin calls for scorched earth policy in radio broadcast.
In 1941, U.S. forces took up positions in Iceland, Trinidad and British Guiana to forestall any Nazi invasion, even though the United States had not yet entered World War II.
In 1941, Germans cross the River Dnieper in the Ukraine.
= Germans cross Dnieper River. Guderian, the most aggressive German general, wishes to push on. Kluge, his superior, orders him to hold and wait for the infantry to catch up. Guderian convinces him to allow further penetration, but Kluge worries, "your operations always hang by a thread."
In 1941, Mutual Assistance agreement between British and Soviets.
In 1941, British occupy Syria.
In 1941, Smolensk is taken, and another 300,000 Russian soldiers with it.
In 1941, first US Army flying school for black cadets dedicated (Tuskegee Ala).
In 1941, the two-finger "V" for Victory had signal was introduced in Europe by British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill. Today that stands for "peace," but in England, if you give the salute with your palm facing you, it means giving someone the double finger. No kidding!
In 1941, The German advance is temporarily halted to allow infantry and supplies to catch up to the Panzer armies.
The German's are experiencing a new kind of warfare. The Russians seem content to trade 10 Russian lives for 1 German. They continually mount reckless counter-attacks. These wasteful attacks have an unnerving effect on the Wehrmarcht.
In 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt demands Japanese troops out of Indo-China.
In 1941, 103 degrees F highest temperature ever recorded in Cleveland in July.
In 1941, Hitler orders Guderian's Panzers to turn south, away from Moscow, in order to conquer Russia's economic centers. Guderian's 2nd Panzer Army is renamed ArmeeGruppe Guderian in recognition of his successes. Further, he is no longer subordinate to Kluge, but answers directly to Bock, Commander of Army Group Centre.
In 1941, 21 U boats sinks this month (94,000 ton).
In 1941, first convoy to Murmansk - Atlantic route doubly important, helped Russians and British.
In 1941, German 11st Army surrounds 20 Russian divisions at Oeman.
In 1941, Guderian, who desires to continue the thrust toward Moscow, disobeys orders and intentionally gets caught up in fighting at Roslavl. Hitler, however, is not to be denied. Guderian is forced to move south.
The German high command grows restless at the growing disobedience of forward commanders. Hitler is haunted by the ghost of Napoleon. He admits to Guderian, "had I known Russian tank strength...I would not have started this war."
In 1941, Stalin assumes the title Supreme Commander of military forces.
In 1941, President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter on a warship in the western Atlantic. The Charter set forth eight goals for the world and later will be the document establishing the United Nations.
In 1941, French Marshal Henri Petain called on his countrymen to give full support to Nazi Germany.
In 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill, who had held secret meetings off Newfoundland, issued the Atlantic Charter, a statement that renounced aggression.
In 1941, German troops under von Leeb surround Leningrad in the north.
In 1941, Hitler turns German main effort southward toward Kiev.
In 1941, Nazi troops reached the outskirts of the Soviet City of Leningrad during World War II.
Guderian flies to see Hitler, to convince him of the need to drive on Moscow. Hitler refuses, stating, "my generals know nothing about the economic aspects of war." The drive south continues.
In 1941, British and Soviet troops invaded Iran following the Shah's refusal to reduce the number of resident Germans.
In 1941, German troops conquer Nowgorod, Leningrad.
In 1941, the World War II siege of Leningrad began as Nazi forces severed the last railroad link between Leningrad and the rest of the Soviet Union. Nazi forces took Mga. It was the start of a 900-day siege of Leningrad. When it ended, the Russian city lay in ruins and hundreds of thousands of people had died.
In 1941, 23 U-boats sunk this month (80,000 ton).
In 1941, amid the growing horror of the Nazi Holocaust, Jews over the age of 6 in German-occupied areas were ordered to wear yellow Stars of David inscribed with the word "Jew."
In 1941, Leningrad's land connections with rest of the USSR are severed.
In 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered any Axis ship found in American waters be shot on sight.
In 1941, an order to attack on sight is issued by Pres. Roosevelt, to apply to German and Italian vessels fou nd in U.S. defensive waters, after a number of U.S. vessels had been sunk or fired upon by submarines.
In 1941, in a speech that sparked charges of anti-semitism, aviation hero Charles A. Lindbergh said in a speech that "the British, the Jewish and the Roosevelt administration" were trying to draw the U.S. into World War II, and that the Jewish groups should oppose the prospect of war instead of "agitating" for it.
In 1941, the first German ship in WW II was captured by the US ship Busko.
The first snow slows the Wehrmarcht's advance.
In 1941, Russian General Zhukov is sent to oversee defense of Leningrad. He puts the citizens to work creating multiple defensive lines around the city.
In 1941, Kiev is captured.
Hitler's drive south nets the city of Kiev. 650,000 Russian soldiers are captured, the largest number ever, in any war.
In 1941, US launches its first Liberty-ship, "Patrick Henry".
In 1941, the first WWII liberty ship, the freighter Patrick Henry, was launched.
In 1941, 53 U-boats sunk this month (202,000 tons).
In 1941, the German Nazi armies launched Operation Typhoon - an all-out offensive against Moscow.
Hitler orders the resumption of the attack on Moscow. There is only limited time before the harsh Russian winter "General January" assists the Red Army. Some argue the delay in attacking Moscow cost Germany the war.
In 1941, Adolf Hitler declared in a speech in Berlin that Russia had been "broken" and would "never rise again."
In 1941, Germany advanced to within 60 miles of Moscow and Romanians entered Odessa, USSR, to begin the extermination of 150,000 Jews.
In 1941, the first American warship torpedoed in WW 2, the "U.S.S. Kearny," is damaged off the Iceland coast (11 killed).
In 1941, Zhukov moved from the successful defense of Leningrad to take command of Moscow's defenses.
In 1941, Kharkov falls to the Wehrmarcht, netting yet another Russian Army Group.
In 1941, the Japanese fleet sails to attack Pearl Harbor.
In 1941, Chicago Daily Tribune editorialize there will not be war with Japan.
In 1941, the U.S. Navy destroyer Reuben James was torpedoed by a German vessel off the coast of Iceland, even though the United States had not yet entered World War II.
In 1941, 13 U boats sunk this month (62,000 ton).
In 1941, the U.S. Navy destroyer Reuben James was torpedoed by a German U-boat off Iceland with the loss of 115 lives, even though the United States had not yet entered World War II.
In 1941, Japanese marine staff officiers Suzuki/Maejima arrive in Pearl Harbor.
In 1941, U.S. Ambassador Joseph Grew warns Washington of a possible secret attack on U.S. positions by the Japanese.
In 1941, Japanese marine staff officiers Suzuki/Maejima leave Pearl Harbor.
In 1941, Japanese fleet readies assault on Pearl Harbor.
In 1941, USA lends Soviet Union $1 million.
In 1941, British air a ttack on Berlin, Mannheim & Ruhrgebied.
In 1941, Nazi Germany launched a second assault on Moscow in World War II - it was agai n doomed to failure.
In 1941, British begin second invasion of Libya.
In 1941, Germans capture Rostov.
In 1941, US troops land on Suriname to protect bauxite mine.
In 1941, Operation TYPHOON. The Wehrmarcht's final drive on Moscow begins. The attack reaches to within 20 miles of Moscow before it is halted by stiff resistance and bitter cold.
In 1941, a Japanese carrier force leaves base, moving east; its secret distination is Pearl Harbor.
= Pearl Harbor striking force sails from Kuril Islands.
In 1941, Conquest of Italian East Africa is completed with surrender of Gondar.
In 1941, USSR begins a counter offensive causing Germany to retreat.
In 1941, Germans are forced to evacuate Rostov.
In 1941, Passenger ship Lurline sends radio signal of sighting Jap war fleet.
In 1941, 13 U boats sunk this month (62,000 ton).
In 1941, British cruiser Devonshire sinks German sub Python.
In 1941, Japanese emperor Hirohito signs declaration of war.
In 1941, the U.S. Civil Air Patrol (CAP) was organized.
In 1941, Naval Intelligence ceases bugging Japanese consul.
In 1941, Yamamoto sends his fleet to Pearl Harbor.
In 1941, German offensive stalls 25 miles from Moscow.
In 1941, Russian anti offensive in Moscow drives out nazi army.
In 1941, Hitler abandons the attack on Moscow. Zhukov begins a counter-attack, utilizing Siberian troops no longer needed against Japan since the April Neutrality Pact with Japan.
In 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt made a personal appeal for peace to Emperor Hirohito of Japan. Pearl Harbor was attacked the next day.
In 1941, Russians launch counteroffensive.
In 1941, Japanese warplanes attacked the home base of the U.S. Pacific fleet located at Pearl Harbor on the Hawaiian island of Oahu, an act that resulted in America's entry into World War II. It happened at 7:55 AM local time, more than 3,000 killed. This Pearl Harbor Day will live in infamy.
In 1941, first Japanese submarine sunk by an American ship (US S Ward).
In 1941, Rommel begins withdrawal to El Agheila.
In 1941, the United States entered World War II as Congress declared war against Japan, a day after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. President Roosevelt called December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy." Great Britian also declared war on Japan.
In 1941, China declared war on Japan, Germany and Italy.
In 1941, Hitler orders US ships torpedoed.
In 1941, first US WW II bombing mission in the Far East, Luzon, Philippines.
In 1941, British advance in Libya relieves Tobruk.
In 1941, Japanese troops landed on northern Luzon in the Philippines.
In 1941, Dutch government in London declares war on Italy.
In 1941, Japanese attack Wake Island (only failed WW II-landing).
In 1941, four days after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States; the United States responded in kind.
In 1941, German submarine U-127 sinks.
In 1941, USS Swordfish becomes first US sub to sink a Japanese ship.
In 1941, Admiral Husband Kimmel, commander of Pearl Harbor, is replaced by Admiral Chester Nimitz as commander of the Pacific Fleet.
In 1941, German submarine U-31 sunk.
In 1941, German troops led by Rommel begin retreating in North Africa.
In 1941, German submarine U-434 sinks.
In 1941, Japanse troops land on Hong Kong.
In 1941, German submarine U-574 sinks.
In 1941, Hitler takes complete command of German Army.
In 1941, The Office of Censorship is created to control all matters involving in formation pertaining to the war.
In 1941, Japanese troops lands on Mindanao.
In 1941, Hitler dismisses Guderian from command for disobeying his order not to give up one inch of ground. (Guderian was adjusting his front line in order to shorten it.)
At the end of 1941, Hitler was left wondering what was holding the Red Army together. The Russians had lost 3 million soldiers (its entire strength at the start of the war.) Fully half of its economic base was in German hands. But Russia was still strong. It had 9 million men of military age left, (enough for 400 divisions) and produced 4500 new tanks over the winter. Germany could not match either of these numbers. A sustained battle of attrition strongly favored Russia.
In 1941, German submarine U-567 sinks.
In 1941, first American troops reach Australia.
In 1941, Japanese troops landing on Luzon invade the Philippines.
In 1941, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived in Washington, D.C., for a wartime conference with President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
In 1941, British troops overrun Benghazi Libya.
In 1941, Japan begins assault on Rangoon Burma.
In 1941, during World War II, American forces on Wake Island surrendered to the Japanese.
In 1941, 1st ships of admiral Nagumo's Pearl Harbor-fleet return to Japan.
In 1941, British enter Benghazi.
In 1941, during World War II, Japan announced the surrender of the British-Canadian garrison at Hong Kong.
In 1941, Japanese war planes bombed Manila in the Philippines, even though it had been declared an "open city."
In 1941, Winston Churchill arrived in Ottawa, Canada, after his talks with President Roosevelt over strate gy to win the war with Germany. In a speech, he said, "Hitler thought that England would have her neck wrung like a chicken, some chicken, some neck."